ICP - Iterative closest point, is a very trivial algorithm for matching object templates to noisy data. It's also super easy to program, so it's good material for a tutorial. The goal is to take a known set of points (usually defining a curve or object exterior) and register it, as good as possible, to a set of other points, usually a larger and noisy set in which we would like to find the object. The basic algorithm is described very briefly in wikipedia, but there are a ton of papers on the subject.
I'll take you through the steps of programming it with OpenCV.
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