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Image Recoloring using Gaussian Mixture Model and Expectation Maximization [OpenCV, w/Code]

I’ll present a quick and simple implementation of image recoloring, in fact more like color transfer between images, using OpenCV in C++ environment. The basis of the algorithm is learning the source color distribution with a GMM using EM, and then applying changes to the target color distribution. It’s fairly easy to implement with OpenCV, as all the “tools” are built in.
I was inspired by Lior Shapira’s work that was presented in Eurographics 09 about image appearance manipulation, and a work about recoloring for the colorblind by Huang et al presented at ICASSP 09. Both works deal with color manipulation using Gaussian Mixture Models.
Update 5/28/2015: Adrien contributed code that works with OpenCV v3! Thanks!
Let’s see how it’s done!